Dr Sunder Lal Memorial Hospital Google Rating
New Delhi -110062


Our administrative and clinical team is second to none. We reiterates the pledge to help all and give hope.
Dr Sunder Lal Memorial Hospital Upper Endoscopy

Upper GI endoscopy

Upper GI endoscopy is a diagnostic as well as therapeutic process for upper GI diseases. It involves insertion of a flexible camera scope through the patient’s mouth and down the food pipe to view the stomach and small intestines.

In most cases, the endoscopy is performed under local anaesthesia by giving a spray into the mouth to anesthetise the throat. In some cases, particularly in therapeutic procedures, it requires sedation or general anaesthesia.

The indications of diagnostic upper GI endoscopy are-

  1. Upper abdominal pain/heartburn
  2. Upper GI bleeding
  3. Chronic reflux/belching
  4. Difficulty in swallowing
  5. Unexplained weight loss/anaemia
  6. Biopsy of polyps/masses or ulcers

The therapeutic applications of upper GI endoscopy include-

  1. Control of bleeding varices or ulcer bleeding by injection sclerotherapy or clip application
  2. Dilatation of strictures of the esophagus, stomach or intestine
  3. Placement of stents for bypassing obstruction or control of surgical leaks
  4. Endoscopic submucosal resection of superficial gastric cancer
  5. POEM (Peroral endoscopic myotomy) for swallowing disorders of the esophagus
  6. Placement of intragastric balloon and plication of stomach or gastric pouch for morbid obesity

The patient should be fasting for at least 8 hours before the procedure and he/she should not have had water also for 2 hours prior.

A diagnostic upper GI endoscopy typically takes only 3- 5 minutes to perform. A therapeutic endoscopy for a particular problem like GI bleeding or dilatation of stricture may take longer depending upon the condition to be treated.

If a diagnostic endoscopy is performed under local anaesthesia, the person can have liquids and light diet within a few minutes after the procedure.

Lower GI endoscopy (Sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy)

Colonoscopy Surgery By Dr Anirudh Vij

Lower GI endoscopy is a process of visualisation of the lower GI tract (i.e. the large intestines, rectum and anus) by inserting a flexible camera scope through the anal opening.

Sigmoidoscopy involves insertion of a camera scope to visualise the latter parts of the large intestine which include the sigmoid colon and rectum whereas in a full colonoscopy, the entire large intestine including the descending, transverse, ascending colon and the caecum are visualised.

The indications of performing a diagnostic lower GI endoscopy include-

  1. Bleeding from the anus or blood in stools
  2. Unexplained chronic diarrhoea/ change in bowel habits
  3. Chronic lower abdominal pain
  4. Personal/family  history of colonic cancer
  5. Unexplained weight loss

The therapeutic indications of lower GI endoscopy include-

  1. Biopsy of any mass or ulcer present in the lower GI tract
  2. Argon plasma coagulation of bleeding rectal tumours
  3. Placement of stents to bypass malignant strictures
  4. Endoscopic submucosal resection of polyps or rectal tumours

The part of the intestine which is undergoing examination should be cleared of stools before undergoing a lower GI endoscopy. This can be done by giving an enema before a sigmoidoscopy procedure and a full bowel preparation before undergoing a colonoscopy. The bowel preparation includes administration of 1-2 litres of a highly osmotic liquid like polyethylene glycol (peglac) the night before the examination which helps clear the entire large intestine of faecal matter.

A sigmoidoscopy procedure can be performed within 5-10 minutes whereas a full colonoscopy make take upto 20 minutes or more to perform.

A sigmoidoscopy procedure is generally performed after lubricating the anal canal and the camera scope with anaesthetic gel which numbs the area and leads to decreased pain sensation. A colonoscopy, on the other hand, may require sedation or general anaesthesia to avoid pain/discomfort during the procedure.

In case the procedure is performed under local anaesthesia, the person can leave as soon as the procedure is completed. Patients requiring sedation/anaesthesia during the procedure may be required to stay in the hospital for 2-3 hours before they are allowed to leave.